#### Meta-Learning via Feature-Label Memory Network

Deep learning typically requires training a very capable architecture using large datasets. However, many important learning problems demand an ability to draw valid inferences from small size datasets, and such problems pose a particular challenge for deep learning. In this regard, various researc…

#### Generalization in Deep Learning

This paper explains why deep learning can generalize well, despite large capacity and possible algorithmic instability, nonrobustness, and sharp minima, effectively addressing an open problem in the literature. Based on our theoretical insight, this paper also proposes a family of new regularizatio…

#### A systematic study of the class imbalance problem in convolutional neural networks

CIFAR Convolutional Neural Network DNN IMAGENET MNIST

In this study, we systematically investigate the impact of class imbalance on classification performance of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) and compare frequently used methods to address the issue. Class imbalance is a common problem that has been comprehensively studied in classical machine l…

#### STDP Based Pruning of Connections and Weight Quantization in Spiking Neural Networks for Energy Efficient Recognition

Spiking Neural Networks (SNNs) with a large number of weights and varied weight distribution can be difficult to implement in emerging in-memory computing hardware due to the limitations on crossbar size (implementing dot product), the constrained number of conductance levels in non-CMOS devices an…

#### Correlated Equilibria for Approximate Variational Inference in MRFs

Almost all of the work in graphical models for game theory has mirrored previous work in probabilistic graphical models. Our work considers the opposite direction: Taking advantage of recent advances in equilibrium computation for probabilistic inference. We present formulations of inference proble…

#### Projection Based Weight Normalization for Deep Neural Networks

CIFAR Convolutional Neural Network DNN gradient image IMAGENET MNIST

Optimizing deep neural networks (DNNs) often suffers from the ill-conditioned problem. We observe that the scaling-based weight space symmetry property in rectified nonlinear network will cause this negative effect. Therefore, we propose to constrain the incoming weights of each neuron to be unit-n…

#### DeepSafe: A Data-driven Approach for Checking Adversarial Robustness in Neural Networks

audio clustering DNN image language MNIST security speech

Deep neural networks have become widely used, obtaining remarkable results in domains such as computer vision, speech recognition, natural language processing, audio recognition, social network filtering, machine translation, and bio-informatics, where they have produced results comparable to human…

#### Neural Networks Regularization Through Class-wise Invariant Representation Learning

Training deep neural networks is known to require a large number of training samples. However, in many applications only few training samples are available. In this work, we tackle the issue of training neural networks for classification task when few training samples are available. We attempt to s…

#### Improved Training for Self-Training

It is well known that for some tasks, labeled data sets may be hard to gather. Therefore, we wished to tackle here the problem of having insufficient training data. We examined learning methods from unlabeled data after an initial training on a limited labeled data set. The suggested approach can b…

#### Generative Adversarial Mapping Networks

CIFAR Generative Adversarial Network image MNIST

Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) have shown impressive performance in generating photo-realistic images. They fit generative models by minimizing certain distance measure between the real image distribution and the generated data distribution. Several distance measures have been used, such as…

#### Zoneout: Regularizing RNNs by Randomly Preserving Hidden Activations

We propose zoneout, a novel method for regularizing RNNs. At each timestep, zoneout stochastically forces some hidden units to maintain their previous values. Like dropout, zoneout uses random noise to train a pseudo-ensemble, improving generalization. But by preserving instead of dropping hidden u…

#### Online Learning of a Memory for Learning Rates

The promise of learning to learn for robotics rests on the hope that by extracting some information about the learning process itself we can speed up subsequent similar learning tasks. Here, we introduce a computationally efficient online meta-learning algorithm that builds and optimizes a memory m…

#### A Memristive Neural Network Computing Engine using CMOS-Compatible Charge-Trap-Transistor (CTT)

A memristive neural network computing engine based on CMOS-compatible charge-trap transistor (CTT) is proposed in this paper. CTT devices are used as analog multipliers. Compared to digital multipliers, CTT-based analog multipliers show dramatic area and power reduction (>100x). The proposed mem…

#### Algorithm and Hardware Design of Discrete-Time Spiking Neural Networks Based on Back Propagation with Binary Activations

We present a new back propagation based training algorithm for discrete-time spiking neural networks (SNN). Inspired by recent deep learning algorithms on binarized neural networks, binary activation with a straight-through gradient estimator is used to model the leaky integrate-fire spiking neuron…

#### Adaptive Laplace Mechanism: Differential Privacy Preservation in Deep Learning

In this paper, we focus on developing a novel mechanism to preserve differential privacy in deep neural networks, such that: (1) The privacy budget consumption is totally independent of the number of training steps; (2) It has the ability to adaptively inject noise into features based on the contri…

#### Adversarial Dropout for Supervised and Semi-supervised Learning

Recently, the training with adversarial examples, which are generated by adding a small but worst-case perturbation on input examples, has been proved to improve generalization performance of neural networks. In contrast to the individually biased inputs to enhance the generality, this paper introd…

#### Mitigating Evasion Attacks to Deep Neural Networks via Region-based Classification

CIFAR DNN image language MNIST security speech

Deep neural networks (DNNs) have transformed several artificial intelligence research areas including computer vision, speech recognition, and natural language processing. However, recent studies demonstrated that DNNs are vulnerable to adversarial manipulations at testing time. Specifically, suppo…

#### Recursive Binary Neural Network Learning Model with 2.28b/Weight Storage Requirement

This paper presents a storage-efficient learning model titled Recursive Binary Neural Networks for sensing devices having a limited amount of on-chip data storage such as < 100's kilo-Bytes. The main idea of the proposed model is to recursively recycle data storage of synaptic weights (para…

#### Convolutional Networks for Spherical Signals

The success of convolutional networks in learning problems involving planar signals such as images is due to their ability to exploit the translation symmetry of the data distribution through weight sharing. Many areas of science and egineering deal with signals with other symmetries, such as rotat…

#### Differentially Private Mixture of Generative Neural Networks

Boltzmann Machine gradient MNIST

Over the past few years, an increasing number of applications of generative models have emerged that rely on large amounts of contextually rich information about individuals. Owing to possible privacy violations of individuals whose data is used to train these models, however, publishing or sharing…

#### A Learning Approach to Secure Learning

Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) have been shown to be vulnerable against adversarial examples, which are data points cleverly constructed to fool the classifier. Such attacks can be devastating in practice, especially as DNNs are being applied to ever increasing critical tasks like image recognition in…

#### EAD: Elastic-Net Attacks to Deep Neural Networks via Adversarial Examples

CIFAR DNN image IMAGENET MNIST security

Recent studies have highlighted the vulnerability of deep neural networks (DNNs) to adversarial examples – a visually indistinguishable adversarial image can easily be crafted to cause a well-trained model to misclassify. Existing methods for crafting adversarial examples are based on $L_2$ a…

#### Spatio-temporal Learning with Arrays of Analog Nanosynapses

Emerging nanodevices such as resistive memories are being considered for hardware realizations of a variety of artificial neural networks (ANNs), including highly promising online variants of the learning approaches known as reservoir computing (RC) and the extreme learning machine (ELM). We propos…

#### Dual Discriminator Generative Adversarial Nets

CIFAR game Generative Adversarial Network IMAGENET MNIST

We propose in this paper a novel approach to tackle the problem of mode collapse encountered in generative adversarial network (GAN). Our idea is intuitive but proven to be very effective, especially in addressing some key limitations of GAN. In essence, it combines the Kullback-Leibler (KL) and re…

#### Spatio-Temporal Backpropagation for Training High-performance Spiking Neural Networks

Compared with artificial neural networks (ANNs), spiking neural networks (SNNs) are promising to explore the brain-like behaviors since the spikes could encode more spatio-temporal information. Although pre-training from ANN or direct training based on backpropagation (BP) makes the supervised trai…